The list of math symbols can be long. You can’t possibly learn all their meanings in one go, can you? You can make use of our tables to get a hold on all the important ones you’ll ever need. This is an introduction to the name of symbols, their use, and meaning.
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The Mathematical symbol is used to denote a function or to signify the relationship between numbers and variables. There are many symbols that you might not know the meaning of.
This will help you in improving your algebra skills.
Numbers and symbols form the very basis of mathematics. Math symbols can denote the relationship between two numbers or quantities.
We have ordered the symbols in order of importance for you.
You can also download the ones according to your need.
Table of Content
1. Basic Math Symbols
These are all the mathematical symbols needed to do basic as well as complex algebraic calculations.
list of Math symbols and their meaning:
Symbol 
Name 
Meaning 
Example 
=  Equal to  Equality  1+2=3
X=5 
≠  Not Equal to  Inequality  X≠5
3+1≠6 
≈  Approximately equal to  To approximate  x ≈ y 
>  Strict inequality  Greater than  7>1 
<  Strict inequality  Lesser than  3<8 
≥  Inequality  greater than or equal to  3 ≥ 1
x ≥ 6 
≤  inequality  less than or equal to  5 ≤ 5
y≤8 
( )  parentheses  calculate expression inside first  3 × (92) = 21 
[ ]  brackets  calculate expression inside first  [(2+3)×(2+6)] = 40 
+  plus  addition  4+1=5 
−  minus  subtraction  41=3 
±  plus – minus  both plus and minus operations  4 ± 6 = 10 or 2 
±  minus – plus  both minus and plus operations  5 ∓ 7 = 2 or 10 
*  asterisk  multiplication  3 * 4 = 12 
×  times sign  multiplication  5×1=5 
÷  division sign / obelus  division  15 ÷ 5 = 3 
.  multiplication dot  multiplication  2 ∙ 3 = 6 
–  horizontal line  division / fraction  8/2 = 4 
/  division slash  division  6 ⁄ 2 = 3 
mod  modulo  remainder calculation  7 mod 3 = 1 
a^{b}  power  exponent  2^{4} = 16 
.  period  decimal point, decimal separator  4.36 = 4 +36/100 
√a  square root  √a · √a = a  √9 = ±3 
a^b  caret  exponent  2 ^ 3 = 8 
^{4}√a  fourth root  ^{4}√a ·^{4}√a · ^{4}√a · ^{4}√a = a  ^{4}√16= ± 2 
%  percent  1% = 1/100  10% × 30 = 3 
^{n}√a  nth root (radical)  ^{n}√a · ^{n}√a · · · n times = a  for n=3, ^{n}√8 = 2 
%  percent  1% = 1/100  10% × 30 = 3 
‰  Per mile  1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%  10‰ × 30 = 0.3 
ppt  pertrillion  1ppt = 1012  10ppt × 30 = 3×1010 
ppb  perbillion  1 ppb = 1/1000000000  10 ppb × 30 = 3×107 
2. Geometry
Geometry is the study of shapes and angles. These symbols are used to express shapes in formula mode. You can study the terms all down below.
You might be familiar with shapes and the units of measurements. When starting out with Geometry you should learn how to measure angles and the length of various shapes.
You can use this image to put the below math symbols into context
Symbol 
Name 
Meaning 
Example 
∠  Angle

Used to denote a corner of shape  ∠ACB of a triangle

∡

Measured Angle  Used to express the value of an angle  ∡ACB is 45°

∟

Right Angle  Symbol used instead of ∠ when the angle is 90°  ∟ABC is 90°

°  Degree symbol  Measure of angle  20°, 180° 
′

prime

arcminute, 1° = 60′

α = 60°59′

″

double prime

arcsecond, 1′ = 60″

α = 60°59′59″

Infinite line  The line extends at both sides infinitely  
Line segment  A line from point a to point b  
ray  A line that starts from a point and keeps on going  
Arc  Arc from point A to B  
⊥

perpendicular

Lines that are 90 degree from a line  ⊥

∥

parallel

Lines that are parallel to each other

∥

≅

congruent to

Denotes that the shape and size of one is equal to another  ∆ABC≅ ∆XYZ

~

Similar to  Similarity by shape but not size  ∆ABC~ ∆XYZ

Δ

Triangle  triangle shape

ΔABC~ ΔBCD

x–y

distance  Distance between two points   x–y  = 3

π

pi  Ratio between circumference and diameter  C=2 . π . r

‘Rad’ or ‘c’

radians

radians angle unit

360° = 2π rad or 360° = 2π ^{c}

‘Grad’ or ‘g’

gradians / gons

grads angle unit

360° = 400 grad
Or 360° = 400 g

3. Set Theory
A set is a collection of objects or elements. We can use a set function to find out the relationships between sets. These functions are stated in the table below.
Here is the proper set of math symbols and notations. You should pay attention because these symbols are easy to mix up. Especially ones like intersection and union symbols.
Symbol  Name  Meaning  Example  
{}  set  The symbol that encapsulates the numbers of a set  A = {3,7,9,14}, B = {9,12,38} 

∩

intersection  objects that are common to two sets

A ∩ B = {9,14}


∪

union  Objects of two sets  A ∪ B = {3,7,9,14,28}


⊆

subset  The contents of one set is derived from another  {9,14,28} ⊆ {9,14,28}


⊂

proper subset / strict subset

A is a subset of B, but A is not equal to B.

{9,14} ⊂ {9,14,28}


⊄

not subset

set A is not a subset of set B

{9,66} ⊄ {9,14,28}


⊇

superset

A is a superset of B. set A includes set B

{9,14,28} ⊇ {9,14,28}


⊃

proper superset / strict superset

A is a superset of B, but B is not equal to A.

{9,14,28} ⊃ {9,14}


⊅

not superset

set A is not a superset of set B

{9,14,28} ⊅ {9,66}


‘2^{A’}
Or ‘P(A)’ 
power set

all subsets of A


=

equality

both sets have the same members

A={3,9,14}, B={3,9,14}, A=B 

A^{c}

complement

all the objects that do not belong to set A


‘A \ B’ or ‘A – B’

relative complement

objects that belong to A and not to B

A = {3,9,14}, B = {1,2,3}, AB = {9,14} 

‘A ∆ B’ or ‘A ⊖ B’

symmetric difference

objects that belong to A or B but not to their intersection

A = {3,9,14}, B = {1,2,3}, A ∆ B = {1,2,9,14} 

a∈A

Elements belongs to  Element of ‘a’ belong to ‘A’  A={3,9,14}, 3 ∈ A


x∉A

not element of

no set membership

A={3,9,14}, 1 ∉ A


(a,b)

ordered pair

collection of 2 elements


A×B

cartesian product

set of all ordered pairs from A and B


‘A’ or ‘#A’

cardinality

the number of elements of set A

A={3,9,14}, A=3




bar  Such that  A={x3<x<14}


Ø

Empty set  A without any elements  C= Ø


U  Universal set  Set that has all possible elements  
N0 and N1  Set of Natural numbers  Set of natural numbers starting from 0 or 1 
_{0} = {0,1,2,3,4,…}
_{1} = {1,2,3,4,5,…}


Z  Integer set  Set of integer values 
= {…3,2,1,0,1,2,3,…}


Q  rational numbers set

= {x  x=a/b, a,b∈}

2/6 ∈ Q


R  real numbers set

= {x  ∞ < x <∞}

6.343434∈ R


C  complex numbers set


6+2i ∈ C

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4. Calculus and Integration
Calculus helps us understand how the values in a function change. It is a very important concept in math.
For example, calculus can be used to predict the rate of which Covid 19 is spreading. The various values like the number of infected, the number of vulnerable people can be applied to calculus.
Calculus can be a nightmare for you if not studied properly. The calculus and precalculus symbols should be studied in order. From integration to derivation.
Symbol  Symbol Name  Meaning / definition  Example 
limit  limit value of a function  
ε  epsilon  represents a very small number, near zero  ε → 0 
e  e constant / Euler’s number  e = 2.718281828…  e = lim (1+1/x)^{x} , x→∞ 
y ‘  derivative  derivative – Lagrange’s notation  (3x^{3})’ = 9x^{2} 
y ”  second derivative  derivative of derivative  (3x^{3})” = 18x 
y^{(n)}  nth derivative  n times derivation  (3x^{3})^{(3)} = 18 
derivative  derivative – Leibniz’s notation  d(3x^{3})/dx = 9x^{2}  
second derivative  derivative of derivative  d^{2}(3x^{3})/dx^{2} = 18x  
nth derivative  n times derivation  
time derivative  derivative by time – Newton’s notation  
time second derivative  derivative of derivative  
D_{x }y  derivative  derivative – Euler’s notation  
D_{x}^{2}y  second derivative  derivative of derivative  
partial derivative  ∂(x^{2}+y^{2})/∂x = 2x  
∫  integral  opposite to derivation  ∫ f(x)dx 
∫∫  double integral  integration of function of 2 variables  ∫∫ f(x,y)dxdy 
∫∫∫  triple integral  integration of function of 3 variables  ∫∫∫ f(x,y,z)dxdydz 
∮  closed contour / line integral  
∯  closed surface integral  
∰  closed volume integral  
[a,b]  closed interval  [a,b] = {x  a ≤ x ≤ b}  
(a,b)  open interval  (a,b) = {x  a < x < b}  
i  imaginary unit  i ≡ √1  z = 3 + 2i 
z*  complex conjugate  z = a+bi → z*=a–bi  z* = 3 – 2i 
z  complex conjugate  z = a+bi → z = a–bi  z = 3 – 2i 
Re(z)  real part of a complex number  z = a+bi → Re(z)=a  Re(3 – 2i) = 3 
Im(z)  imaginary part of a complex number  z = a+bi → Im(z)=b  Im(3 – 2i) = 2 
 z   absolute value/magnitude of a complex number  z = a+bi = √(a^{2}+b^{2})  3 – 2i = √13 
arg(z)  argument of a complex number  The angle of the radius in the complex plane  arg(3 + 2i) = 33.7° 
∇  nabla / del  gradient / divergence operator  ∇f (x,y,z) 
vector  
unit vector  
x * y  convolution  y(t) = x(t) * h(t)  
Laplace transform  F(s) = {f (t)}  
Fourier transform  X(ω) = {f (t)}  
δ  delta function  
∞  lemniscate  infinity symbol 
Be sure to print our table to learn the various math symbols and functions easily.
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Conclusion
Mathematical symbols allow us to save a lot of time because they are abbreviations. Learning new symbols will allow you to learn more theories and concepts simultaneously.
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Stick these tables in the classroom or send via Google Classroom so that children can easily get hold of these mathematical symbols.